原文地址,是官网的《10 Minutes to pandas》翻译,代码中添加了个人的一些注释。

通常来说,我们像下面这样来引入包:

1
2
3
4
5
In [1]: import pandas as pd

In [2]: import numpy as np

In [3]: import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

创建对象

通过列表来创建Series对象,pandas默认创建整型索引:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
In [4]: s = pd.Series([1,3,5,np.nan,6,8])

In [5]: s
Out[5]:
0 1.0
1 3.0
2 5.0
3 NaN
4 6.0
5 8.0
dtype: float64

通过numpy数组来创建DataFrame,并使用时间作为索引和有标签的列名:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
In [6]: dates = pd.date_range('20130101', periods=6)  # periods定义行数

In [7]: dates
Out[7]:
DatetimeIndex(['2013-01-01', '2013-01-02', '2013-01-03', '2013-01-04',
'2013-01-05', '2013-01-06'],
dtype='datetime64[ns]', freq='D')


# np.random.rand()函数第一个参数是行,第二个参数是列
# 使用index参数制定行索引
# columns制定列名
In [8]: df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(6,4), index=dates, columns=list('ABCD'))

In [9]: df
Out[9]:
A B C D
2013-01-01 0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 1.071804
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 0.271860
2013-01-05 -0.424972 0.567020 0.276232 -1.087401
2013-01-06 -0.673690 0.113648 -1.478427 0.524988

也可以使用字典来创建DataFrame,就像创建Series那样:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

# pd.Timestamp创建日期类型数据
# pd.Categorical创建类别 这种数据类型
# 使用dtype参数指定数据类型,注意A列和C列的区别

In [10]: df2 = pd.DataFrame({ 'A' : 1.,
....: 'B' : pd.Timestamp('20130102'),
....: 'C' : pd.Series(1,index=list(range(4)),dtype='float32'),
....: 'D' : np.array([3] * 4,dtype='int32'),
....: 'E' : pd.Categorical(["test","train","test","train"]),
....: 'F' : 'foo' })
....:

In [11]: df2
Out[11]:
A B C D E F
0 1.0 2013-01-02 1.0 3 test foo
1 1.0 2013-01-02 1.0 3 train foo
2 1.0 2013-01-02 1.0 3 test foo
3 1.0 2013-01-02 1.0 3 train foo

使用dtypes属性来查看列的类型:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

# 字符串的type是object

In [12]: df2.dtypes
Out[12]:
A float64
B datetime64[ns]
C float32
D int32
E category
F object
dtype: object

如果你使用Ipython,Tab键可以自动补全列名和公有属性,下面是一些示例:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
In [13]: df2.<TAB>
df2.A df2.bool
df2.abs df2.boxplot
df2.add df2.C
df2.add_prefix df2.clip
df2.add_suffix df2.clip_lower
df2.align df2.clip_upper
df2.all df2.columns
df2.any df2.combine
df2.append df2.combine_first
df2.apply df2.compound
df2.applymap df2.consolidate
df2.D

正如上图所示,列A,B,C,D都自动显示出来了,E也是(不过没显示出来),其余属性被截断了。

查看数据

查看前几条或者后几条数据:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
In [14]: df.head()
Out[14]:
A B C D
2013-01-01 0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 1.071804
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 0.271860
2013-01-05 -0.424972 0.567020 0.276232 -1.087401

In [15]: df.tail(3)
Out[15]:
A B C D
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 0.271860
2013-01-05 -0.424972 0.567020 0.276232 -1.087401
2013-01-06 -0.673690 0.113648 -1.478427 0.524988

查看索引、列名、值:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
In [16]: df.index
Out[16]:
DatetimeIndex(['2013-01-01', '2013-01-02', '2013-01-03', '2013-01-04',
'2013-01-05', '2013-01-06'],
dtype='datetime64[ns]', freq='D')

In [17]: df.columns
Out[17]: Index(['A', 'B', 'C', 'D'], dtype='object')

In [18]: df.values
Out[18]:
array([[ 0.4691, -0.2829, -1.5091, -1.1356],
[ 1.2121, -0.1732, 0.1192, -1.0442],
[-0.8618, -2.1046, -0.4949, 1.0718],
[ 0.7216, -0.7068, -1.0396, 0.2719],
[-0.425 , 0.567 , 0.2762, -1.0874],
[-0.6737, 0.1136, -1.4784, 0.525 ]])

查看统计信息:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
In [19]: df.describe()
Out[19]:
A B C D
count 6.000000 6.000000 6.000000 6.000000
mean 0.073711 -0.431125 -0.687758 -0.233103
std 0.843157 0.922818 0.779887 0.973118
min -0.861849 -2.104569 -1.509059 -1.135632
25% -0.611510 -0.600794 -1.368714 -1.076610
50% 0.022070 -0.228039 -0.767252 -0.386188
75% 0.658444 0.041933 -0.034326 0.461706
max 1.212112 0.567020 0.276232 1.071804

转置数据:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
In [20]: df.T
Out[20]:
2013-01-01 2013-01-02 2013-01-03 2013-01-04 2013-01-05 2013-01-06
A 0.469112 1.212112 -0.861849 0.721555 -0.424972 -0.673690
B -0.282863 -0.173215 -2.104569 -0.706771 0.567020 0.113648
C -1.509059 0.119209 -0.494929 -1.039575 0.276232 -1.478427
D -1.135632 -1.044236 1.071804 0.271860 -1.087401 0.524988

根据行名排序:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
# 注意参数axis指定1为行名,0时为列名,在此例子中则代表根据时间正序或者逆序
# ascending代表是否逆序

In [21]: df.sort_index(axis=1, ascending=False)
Out[21]:
D C B A
2013-01-01 -1.135632 -1.509059 -0.282863 0.469112
2013-01-02 -1.044236 0.119209 -0.173215 1.212112
2013-01-03 1.071804 -0.494929 -2.104569 -0.861849
2013-01-04 0.271860 -1.039575 -0.706771 0.721555
2013-01-05 -1.087401 0.276232 0.567020 -0.424972
2013-01-06 0.524988 -1.478427 0.113648 -0.673690

选择数据

注意:尽管python/numpy的选择、赋值表达式很直观并且能很方便的在交互环境使用,但对于生产环境,我们推荐使用经过优化的pandas操作方法,比如.at,.iat,.loc,.iloc,.ix等

更多说明请参考 Indexing and Selecting Data 和 MultiIndex / Advanced Indexing 。

获得数据

选择一列,返回Series对象,等价于df.A:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
In [23]: df['A']
Out[23]:
2013-01-01 0.469112
2013-01-02 1.212112
2013-01-03 -0.861849
2013-01-04 0.721555
2013-01-05 -0.424972
2013-01-06 -0.673690
Freq: D, Name: A, dtype: float64

使用[]选择数据,返回行的切片:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
In [24]: df[0:3]
Out[24]:
A B C D
2013-01-01 0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 1.071804

In [25]: df['20130102':'20130104']
Out[25]:
A B C D
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 1.071804
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 0.271860

使用标签获得数据

通过标签获取第一行:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
In [26]: df.loc[dates[0]]
Out[26]:
A 0.469112
B -0.282863
C -1.509059
D -1.135632
Name: 2013-01-01 00:00:00, dtype: float64

通过标签获取多个列:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
In [27]: df.loc[:,['A','B']]
Out[27]:
A B
2013-01-01 0.469112 -0.282863
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771
2013-01-05 -0.424972 0.567020
2013-01-06 -0.673690 0.113648

获取一定标签范围的数据,包含起始和结尾两条数据 (这个注意和Python的切片操作有略微不同,Python切片是不包含结尾的):

1
2
3
4
5
6
In [28]: df.loc['20130102':'20130104',['A','B']]
Out[28]:
A B
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771

减少返回数据量:

1
2
3
4
5
In [29]: df.loc['20130102',['A','B']]
Out[29]:
A 1.212112
B -0.173215
Name: 2013-01-02 00:00:00, dtype: float64

获取一个标量值(scalar value):

1
2
In [30]: df.loc[dates[0],'A']
Out[30]: 0.46911229990718628

快速获取一个标量(等同前面的方法):

1
2
In [31]: df.at[dates[0],'A']
Out[31]: 0.46911229990718628

使用下标获取数据

通过整数下标来选择数据:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
In [32]: df.iloc[3]
Out[32]:
A 0.721555
B -0.706771
C -1.039575
D 0.271860
Name: 2013-01-04 00:00:00, dtype: float64

通过下标切片来获取数据,和python/numpy类似:

1
2
3
4
5
In [33]: df.iloc[3:5,0:2]
Out[33]:
A B
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771
2013-01-05 -0.424972 0.567020

通过下标数组来获取数据,和python/numpy类似:

1
2
3
4
5
6
In [34]: df.iloc[[1,2,4],[0,2]]
Out[34]:
A C
2013-01-02 1.212112 0.119209
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -0.494929
2013-01-05 -0.424972 0.276232

显式的指定行:

1
2
3
4
5
In [35]: df.iloc[1:3,:]
Out[35]:
A B C D
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 1.071804

显式的指定列:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
In [36]: df.iloc[:,1:3]
Out[36]:
B C
2013-01-01 -0.282863 -1.509059
2013-01-02 -0.173215 0.119209
2013-01-03 -2.104569 -0.494929
2013-01-04 -0.706771 -1.039575
2013-01-05 0.567020 0.276232
2013-01-06 0.113648 -1.478427

显式指定值:

1
2
In [37]: df.iloc[1,1]
Out[37]: -0.17321464905330858

或者更快的方法:

1
2
In [38]: df.iat[1,1]
Out[38]: -0.17321464905330858

根据布尔值选择

根据某列值来选择:

1
2
3
4
5
6
In [39]: df[df.A > 0]
Out[39]:
A B C D
2013-01-01 0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 0.271860

根据布尔值在整个DataFrame上选择数据:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
In [40]: df[df > 0]
Out[40]:
A B C D
2013-01-01 0.469112 NaN NaN NaN
2013-01-02 1.212112 NaN 0.119209 NaN
2013-01-03 NaN NaN NaN 1.071804
2013-01-04 0.721555 NaN NaN 0.271860
2013-01-05 NaN 0.567020 0.276232 NaN
2013-01-06 NaN 0.113648 NaN 0.524988

使用isin()函数进行过滤:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
In [41]: df2 = df.copy()

In [42]: df2['E'] = ['one', 'one','two','three','four','three']

In [43]: df2
Out[43]:
A B C D E
2013-01-01 0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632 one
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 -1.044236 one
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 1.071804 two
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 0.271860 three
2013-01-05 -0.424972 0.567020 0.276232 -1.087401 four
2013-01-06 -0.673690 0.113648 -1.478427 0.524988 three

In [44]: df2[df2['E'].isin(['two','four'])]
Out[44]:
A B C D E
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 1.071804 two
2013-01-05 -0.424972 0.567020 0.276232 -1.087401 four

赋值

创建一个新列并自动根据索引将数据对其:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
In [45]: s1 = pd.Series([1,2,3,4,5,6], index=pd.date_range('20130102', periods=6))

In [46]: s1
Out[46]:
2013-01-02 1
2013-01-03 2
2013-01-04 3
2013-01-05 4
2013-01-06 5
2013-01-07 6
Freq: D, dtype: int64

In [47]: df['F'] = s1

根据标签赋值:

1
In [48]: df.at[dates[0],'A'] = 0

根据下标赋值:

1
In [49]: df.iat[0,1] = 0

使用numpy数组赋值:

1
In [50]: df.loc[:,'D'] = np.array([5] * len(df))

上面操作后结果如下:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

# 注意F列,声明时候从1月2日开始,所以第一行为NAN
In [51]: df
Out[51]:
A B C D F
2013-01-01 0.000000 0.000000 -1.509059 5 NaN
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 5 1.0
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 5 2.0
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 5 3.0
2013-01-05 -0.424972 0.567020 0.276232 5 4.0
2013-01-06 -0.673690 0.113648 -1.478427 5 5.0

使用where操作:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
In [52]: df2 = df.copy()
# 把所有大于0的数据取反
In [53]: df2[df2 > 0] = -df2

In [54]: df2
Out[54]:
A B C D F
2013-01-01 0.000000 0.000000 -1.509059 -5 NaN
2013-01-02 -1.212112 -0.173215 -0.119209 -5 -1.0
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 -5 -2.0
2013-01-04 -0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 -5 -3.0
2013-01-05 -0.424972 -0.567020 -0.276232 -5 -4.0
2013-01-06 -0.673690 -0.113648 -1.478427 -5 -5.0

数据缺失

pandas使用np.nan来填充缺失的数据,默认情况下这些数值不会被计算,细节参考Missing Data section。

Reindexing函数准许你 改变/添加/删除 指定轴上的索引,并返回数据的副本:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
In [55]: df1 = df.reindex(index=dates[0:4], columns=list(df.columns) + ['E'])

In [56]: df1.loc[dates[0]:dates[1],'E'] = 1

In [57]: df1
Out[57]:
A B C D F E
2013-01-01 0.000000 0.000000 -1.509059 5 NaN 1.0
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 5 1.0 1.0
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 5 2.0 NaN
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 5 3.0 NaN

删除所有包含NaN数据的行:

1
2
3
4
In [58]: df1.dropna(how='any')
Out[58]:
A B C D F E
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 5 1.0 1.0

填充缺失的数据:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
In [59]: df1.fillna(value=5)
Out[59]:
A B C D F E
2013-01-01 0.000000 0.000000 -1.509059 5 5.0 1.0
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 0.119209 5 1.0 1.0
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 5 2.0 5.0
2013-01-04 0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 5 3.0 5.0

根据是否是NaN来获取布尔值:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
In [60]: pd.isna(df1)
Out[60]:
A B C D F E
2013-01-01 False False False False True False
2013-01-02 False False False False False False
2013-01-03 False False False False False True
2013-01-04 False False False False False True

操作

细节请查看Basic section on Binary Ops

统计数据

所有的操作都 排除缺失 的数据。执行一个统计函数:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
In [61]: df.mean()
Out[61]:
A -0.004474
B -0.383981
C -0.687758
D 5.000000
F 3.000000
dtype: float64

在别的轴上执行相同的操作:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
In [62]: df.mean(1)
Out[62]:
2013-01-01 0.872735
2013-01-02 1.431621
2013-01-03 0.707731
2013-01-04 1.395042
2013-01-05 1.883656
2013-01-06 1.592306
Freq: D, dtype: float64

操作有不同的维度,因此需要对齐数据。此外pandas会自动根据指定的维度进行扩展:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
In [63]: s = pd.Series([1,3,5,np.nan,6,8], index=dates).shift(2)

In [64]: s
Out[64]:
2013-01-01 NaN
2013-01-02 NaN
2013-01-03 1.0
2013-01-04 3.0
2013-01-05 5.0
2013-01-06 NaN
Freq: D, dtype: float64

In [65]: df.sub(s, axis='index')
Out[65]:
A B C D F
2013-01-01 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
2013-01-02 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN
2013-01-03 -1.861849 -3.104569 -1.494929 4.0 1.0
2013-01-04 -2.278445 -3.706771 -4.039575 2.0 0.0
2013-01-05 -5.424972 -4.432980 -4.723768 0.0 -1.0
2013-01-06 NaN NaN NaN NaN NaN

应用函数

在数据集上应用函数:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
In [66]: df.apply(np.cumsum)
Out[66]:
A B C D F
2013-01-01 0.000000 0.000000 -1.509059 5 NaN
2013-01-02 1.212112 -0.173215 -1.389850 10 1.0
2013-01-03 0.350263 -2.277784 -1.884779 15 3.0
2013-01-04 1.071818 -2.984555 -2.924354 20 6.0
2013-01-05 0.646846 -2.417535 -2.648122 25 10.0
2013-01-06 -0.026844 -2.303886 -4.126549 30 15.0

In [67]: df.apply(lambda x: x.max() - x.min())
Out[67]:
A 2.073961
B 2.671590
C 1.785291
D 0.000000
F 4.000000
dtype: float64

直方图

更多细节查看Histogramming and Discretization

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
In [68]: s = pd.Series(np.random.randint(0, 7, size=10))

In [69]: s
Out[69]:
0 4
1 2
2 1
3 2
4 6
5 4
6 4
7 6
8 4
9 4
dtype: int64

In [70]: s.value_counts()
Out[70]:
4 5
6 2
2 2
1 1
dtype: int64

字符串方法

Series上可以通过str属性方便的在数组每一个元素上使用一系列字符串处理函数,如下面所示。注意在str上默认使用正则表达式来进行模式匹配。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
In [71]: s = pd.Series(['A', 'B', 'C', 'Aaba', 'Baca', np.nan, 'CABA', 'dog', 'cat'])

In [72]: s.str.lower()
Out[72]:
0 a
1 b
2 c
3 aaba
4 baca
5 NaN
6 caba
7 dog
8 cat
dtype: object

Merge

pandas提供了很多种方法合并SeriesDataFramePanel,并且提供了各种各样的关系代数函数可以应用在索引上,比如join/merge-type操作。

concat

使用concat函数来连接pandas数据类型:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
In [73]: df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(10, 4))

In [74]: df
Out[74]:
0 1 2 3
0 -0.548702 1.467327 -1.015962 -0.483075
1 1.637550 -1.217659 -0.291519 -1.745505
2 -0.263952 0.991460 -0.919069 0.266046
3 -0.709661 1.669052 1.037882 -1.705775
4 -0.919854 -0.042379 1.247642 -0.009920
5 0.290213 0.495767 0.362949 1.548106
6 -1.131345 -0.089329 0.337863 -0.945867
7 -0.932132 1.956030 0.017587 -0.016692
8 -0.575247 0.254161 -1.143704 0.215897
9 1.193555 -0.077118 -0.408530 -0.862495

# break it into pieces
In [75]: pieces = [df[:3], df[3:7], df[7:]]

In [76]: pd.concat(pieces)
Out[76]:
0 1 2 3
0 -0.548702 1.467327 -1.015962 -0.483075
1 1.637550 -1.217659 -0.291519 -1.745505
2 -0.263952 0.991460 -0.919069 0.266046
3 -0.709661 1.669052 1.037882 -1.705775
4 -0.919854 -0.042379 1.247642 -0.009920
5 0.290213 0.495767 0.362949 1.548106
6 -1.131345 -0.089329 0.337863 -0.945867
7 -0.932132 1.956030 0.017587 -0.016692
8 -0.575247 0.254161 -1.143704 0.215897
9 1.193555 -0.077118 -0.408530 -0.862495

join

类似SQL中的join操作:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
In [77]: left = pd.DataFrame({'key': ['foo', 'foo'], 'lval': [1, 2]})

In [78]: right = pd.DataFrame({'key': ['foo', 'foo'], 'rval': [4, 5]})

In [79]: left
Out[79]:
key lval
0 foo 1
1 foo 2

In [80]: right
Out[80]:
key rval
0 foo 4
1 foo 5

In [81]: pd.merge(left, right, on='key')
Out[81]:
key lval rval
0 foo 1 4
1 foo 1 5
2 foo 2 4
3 foo 2 5

另一种显示方式:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
In [82]: left = pd.DataFrame({'key': ['foo', 'bar'], 'lval': [1, 2]})

In [83]: right = pd.DataFrame({'key': ['foo', 'bar'], 'rval': [4, 5]})

In [84]: left
Out[84]:
key lval
0 foo 1
1 bar 2

In [85]: right
Out[85]:
key rval
0 foo 4
1 bar 5

In [86]: pd.merge(left, right, on='key')
Out[86]:
key lval rval
0 foo 1 4
1 bar 2 5

Append

追加一行到数据中:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
In [87]: df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(8, 4), columns=['A','B','C','D'])

In [88]: df
Out[88]:
A B C D
0 1.346061 1.511763 1.627081 -0.990582
1 -0.441652 1.211526 0.268520 0.024580
2 -1.577585 0.396823 -0.105381 -0.532532
3 1.453749 1.208843 -0.080952 -0.264610
4 -0.727965 -0.589346 0.339969 -0.693205
5 -0.339355 0.593616 0.884345 1.591431
6 0.141809 0.220390 0.435589 0.192451
7 -0.096701 0.803351 1.715071 -0.708758

In [89]: s = df.iloc[3]

# 注意后面的ignore_index参数
In [90]: df.append(s, ignore_index=True)
Out[90]:
A B C D
0 1.346061 1.511763 1.627081 -0.990582
1 -0.441652 1.211526 0.268520 0.024580
2 -1.577585 0.396823 -0.105381 -0.532532
3 1.453749 1.208843 -0.080952 -0.264610
4 -0.727965 -0.589346 0.339969 -0.693205
5 -0.339355 0.593616 0.884345 1.591431
6 0.141809 0.220390 0.435589 0.192451
7 -0.096701 0.803351 1.715071 -0.708758
8 1.453749 1.208843 -0.080952 -0.264610

Grouping

这里说的”group by”指的是下面几步:

  • 根据条件将数据 分割 成组
  • 对每个组 应用 函数
  • 将结果 组合 起来到一个数据结构中
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
In [91]: df = pd.DataFrame({'A' : ['foo', 'bar', 'foo', 'bar',
....: 'foo', 'bar', 'foo', 'foo'],
....: 'B' : ['one', 'one', 'two', 'three',
....: 'two', 'two', 'one', 'three'],
....: 'C' : np.random.randn(8),
....: 'D' : np.random.randn(8)})
....:

In [92]: df
Out[92]:
A B C D
0 foo one -1.202872 -0.055224
1 bar one -1.814470 2.395985
2 foo two 1.018601 1.552825
3 bar three -0.595447 0.166599
4 foo two 1.395433 0.047609
5 bar two -0.392670 -0.136473
6 foo one 0.007207 -0.561757
7 foo three 1.928123 -1.623033

分组并求和:

1
2
3
4
5
6
In [93]: df.groupby('A').sum()
Out[93]:
C D
A
bar -2.802588 2.42611
foo 3.146492 -0.63958

根据多个列分组:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
In [94]: df.groupby(['A','B']).sum()
Out[94]:
C D
A B
bar one -1.814470 2.395985
three -0.595447 0.166599
two -0.392670 -0.136473
foo one -1.195665 -0.616981
three 1.928123 -1.623033
two 2.414034 1.600434

Reshaping

更多细节参考 Hierarchical IndexingReshaping

Stack

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
In [95]: tuples = list(zip(*[['bar', 'bar', 'baz', 'baz',
....: 'foo', 'foo', 'qux', 'qux'],
....: ['one', 'two', 'one', 'two',
....: 'one', 'two', 'one', 'two']]))
....:

In [96]: index = pd.MultiIndex.from_tuples(tuples, names=['first', 'second'])

In [97]: df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(8, 2), index=index, columns=['A', 'B'])

In [98]: df2 = df[:4]

In [99]: df2
Out[99]:
A B
first second
bar one 0.029399 -0.542108
two 0.282696 -0.087302
baz one -1.575170 1.771208
two 0.816482 1.100230

stack()方法将数据集列进行了压缩:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
In [100]: stacked = df2.stack()

In [101]: stacked
Out[101]:
first second
bar one A 0.029399
B -0.542108
two A 0.282696
B -0.087302
baz one A -1.575170
B 1.771208
two A 0.816482
B 1.100230
dtype: float64

对于使用MultiIndex作为索引的 DataFrame 或者 Series,stack()的逆操作是unstack(),默认转换到 最后一级。(last level 我也不知道怎么翻译合适了。)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
In [102]: stacked.unstack()
Out[102]:
A B
first second
bar one 0.029399 -0.542108
two 0.282696 -0.087302
baz one -1.575170 1.771208
two 0.816482 1.100230

In [103]: stacked.unstack(1)
Out[103]:
second one two
first
bar A 0.029399 0.282696
B -0.542108 -0.087302
baz A -1.575170 0.816482
B 1.771208 1.100230

In [104]: stacked.unstack(0)
Out[104]:
first bar baz
second
one A 0.029399 -1.575170
B -0.542108 1.771208
two A 0.282696 0.816482
B -0.087302 1.100230

Pivot Tables

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
In [105]: df = pd.DataFrame({'A' : ['one', 'one', 'two', 'three'] * 3,
.....: 'B' : ['A', 'B', 'C'] * 4,
.....: 'C' : ['foo', 'foo', 'foo', 'bar', 'bar', 'bar'] * 2,
.....: 'D' : np.random.randn(12),
.....: 'E' : np.random.randn(12)})
.....:

In [106]: df
Out[106]:
A B C D E
0 one A foo 1.418757 -0.179666
1 one B foo -1.879024 1.291836
2 two C foo 0.536826 -0.009614
3 three A bar 1.006160 0.392149
4 one B bar -0.029716 0.264599
5 one C bar -1.146178 -0.057409
6 two A foo 0.100900 -1.425638
7 three B foo -1.035018 1.024098
8 one C foo 0.314665 -0.106062
9 one A bar -0.773723 1.824375
10 two B bar -1.170653 0.595974
11 three C bar 0.648740 1.167115

我们可以很简单的生成透视表:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
In [107]: pd.pivot_table(df, values='D', index=['A', 'B'], columns=['C'])
Out[107]:
C bar foo
A B
one A -0.773723 1.418757
B -0.029716 -1.879024
C -1.146178 0.314665
three A 1.006160 NaN
B NaN -1.035018
C 0.648740 NaN
two A NaN 0.100900
B -1.170653 NaN
C NaN 0.536826

时间序列

pandas提供了简单、强大、有效的函数在频率转换时进行重采样操作(比如将每秒数据转换为每5分钟数据),这在金融领域是一种很常见的需求,但不限于此。

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
In [108]: rng = pd.date_range('1/1/2012', periods=100, freq='S')

In [109]: ts = pd.Series(np.random.randint(0, 500, len(rng)), index=rng)

In [110]: ts.resample('5Min').sum()
Out[110]:
2012-01-01 25083
Freq: 5T, dtype: int64

时区表示:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
In [111]: rng = pd.date_range('3/6/2012 00:00', periods=5, freq='D')

In [112]: ts = pd.Series(np.random.randn(len(rng)), rng)

In [113]: ts
Out[113]:
2012-03-06 0.464000
2012-03-07 0.227371
2012-03-08 -0.496922
2012-03-09 0.306389
2012-03-10 -2.290613
Freq: D, dtype: float64

In [114]: ts_utc = ts.tz_localize('UTC')

In [115]: ts_utc
Out[115]:
2012-03-06 00:00:00+00:00 0.464000
2012-03-07 00:00:00+00:00 0.227371
2012-03-08 00:00:00+00:00 -0.496922
2012-03-09 00:00:00+00:00 0.306389
2012-03-10 00:00:00+00:00 -2.290613
Freq: D, dtype: float64

转换时区:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
In [116]: ts_utc.tz_convert('US/Eastern')
Out[116]:
2012-03-05 19:00:00-05:00 0.464000
2012-03-06 19:00:00-05:00 0.227371
2012-03-07 19:00:00-05:00 -0.496922
2012-03-08 19:00:00-05:00 0.306389
2012-03-09 19:00:00-05:00 -2.290613
Freq: D, dtype: float64

修改时间跨度:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
#比如数据中某个月的具体日期不同,想统一成每个月1号

In [117]: rng = pd.date_range('1/1/2012', periods=5, freq='M')

In [118]: ts = pd.Series(np.random.randn(len(rng)), index=rng)

In [119]: ts
Out[119]:
2012-01-31 -1.134623
2012-02-29 -1.561819
2012-03-31 -0.260838
2012-04-30 0.281957
2012-05-31 1.523962
Freq: M, dtype: float64

In [120]: ps = ts.to_period()

In [121]: ps
Out[121]:
2012-01 -1.134623
2012-02 -1.561819
2012-03 -0.260838
2012-04 0.281957
2012-05 1.523962
Freq: M, dtype: float64

In [122]: ps.to_timestamp()
Out[122]:
2012-01-01 -1.134623
2012-02-01 -1.561819
2012-03-01 -0.260838
2012-04-01 0.281957
2012-05-01 1.523962
Freq: MS, dtype: float64

在进行时区和时间戳之间的转换时可以使用一些算数函数,下面的例子中我们将季度结尾设定为11月并且设定时间为9点(这里翻译的很别扭,不确定文档错了还是我翻译的问题,可以将加法去掉对比来看):

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
In [123]: prng = pd.period_range('1990Q1', '2000Q4', freq='Q-NOV')

In [124]: ts = pd.Series(np.random.randn(len(prng)), prng)

In [125]: ts.index = (prng.asfreq('M', 'e') + 1).asfreq('H', 's') + 9

In [126]: ts.head()
Out[126]:
1990-03-01 09:00 -0.902937
1990-06-01 09:00 0.068159
1990-09-01 09:00 -0.057873
1990-12-01 09:00 -0.368204
1991-03-01 09:00 -1.144073
Freq: H, dtype: float64

Categoricals

pandas可以在DataFrame中包含分类数据:

1
In [127]: df = pd.DataFrame({"id":[1,2,3,4,5,6], "raw_grade":['a', 'b', 'b', 'a', 'a', 'e']})

将原始的等级信息转换为分类:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
In [128]: df["grade"] = df["raw_grade"].astype("category")

In [129]: df["grade"]
Out[129]:
0 a
1 b
2 b
3 a
4 a
5 e
Name: grade, dtype: category
Categories (3, object): [a, b, e]

将分类转换为更易读的名称:

1
2
3
#这里可以输出df["grade"].cat.categories看到对应的原始值

In [130]: df["grade"].cat.categories = ["very good", "good", "very bad"]

根据分类排序并且添加缺失的类别(默认情况下Series .cat返回一个新的Series对象):

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
In [131]: df["grade"] = df["grade"].cat.set_categories(["very bad", "bad", "medium", "good", "very good"])

In [132]: df["grade"]
Out[132]:
0 very good
1 good
2 good
3 very good
4 very good
5 very bad
Name: grade, dtype: category
Categories (5, object): [very bad, bad, medium, good, very good]

排序取决于分类的顺序,而不是词法:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
In [133]: df.sort_values(by="grade")
Out[133]:
id raw_grade grade
5 6 e very bad
1 2 b good
2 3 b good
0 1 a very good
3 4 a very good
4 5 a very good

通过分类进行分组也会显示出没数据的组:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
In [134]: df.groupby("grade").size()
Out[134]:
grade
very bad 1
bad 0
medium 0
good 2
very good 3
dtype: int64

Plotting

绘图

1
2
3
4
5
6
In [135]: ts = pd.Series(np.random.randn(1000), index=pd.date_range('1/1/2000', periods=1000))

In [136]: ts = ts.cumsum()

In [137]: ts.plot()
Out[137]: <matplotlib.axes._subplots.AxesSubplot at 0x1122ad630>

1
对于DataFrameplot()函数将所有的列都绘制出来:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
In [138]: df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(1000, 4), index=ts.index,
.....: columns=['A', 'B', 'C', 'D'])
.....:

In [139]: df = df.cumsum()

In [140]: plt.figure(); df.plot(); plt.legend(loc='best')
Out[140]: <matplotlib.legend.Legend at 0x115033cf8>

2

输入/输出数据

CSV格式

写入:

1
In [141]: df.to_csv('foo.csv')

读取:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
In [142]: pd.read_csv('foo.csv')
Out[142]:
Unnamed: 0 A B C D
0 2000-01-01 0.266457 -0.399641 -0.219582 1.186860
1 2000-01-02 -1.170732 -0.345873 1.653061 -0.282953
2 2000-01-03 -1.734933 0.530468 2.060811 -0.515536
3 2000-01-04 -1.555121 1.452620 0.239859 -1.156896
4 2000-01-05 0.578117 0.511371 0.103552 -2.428202
5 2000-01-06 0.478344 0.449933 -0.741620 -1.962409
6 2000-01-07 1.235339 -0.091757 -1.543861 -1.084753
.. ... ... ... ... ...
993 2002-09-20 -10.628548 -9.153563 -7.883146 28.313940
994 2002-09-21 -10.390377 -8.727491 -6.399645 30.914107
995 2002-09-22 -8.985362 -8.485624 -4.669462 31.367740
996 2002-09-23 -9.558560 -8.781216 -4.499815 30.518439
997 2002-09-24 -9.902058 -9.340490 -4.386639 30.105593
998 2002-09-25 -10.216020 -9.480682 -3.933802 29.758560
999 2002-09-26 -11.856774 -10.671012 -3.216025 29.369368

[1000 rows x 5 columns]

HDF5格式

写入:

1
In [143]: df.to_hdf('foo.h5','df')

读取:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
In [144]: pd.read_hdf('foo.h5','df')
Out[144]:
A B C D
2000-01-01 0.266457 -0.399641 -0.219582 1.186860
2000-01-02 -1.170732 -0.345873 1.653061 -0.282953
2000-01-03 -1.734933 0.530468 2.060811 -0.515536
2000-01-04 -1.555121 1.452620 0.239859 -1.156896
2000-01-05 0.578117 0.511371 0.103552 -2.428202
2000-01-06 0.478344 0.449933 -0.741620 -1.962409
2000-01-07 1.235339 -0.091757 -1.543861 -1.084753
... ... ... ... ...
2002-09-20 -10.628548 -9.153563 -7.883146 28.313940
2002-09-21 -10.390377 -8.727491 -6.399645 30.914107
2002-09-22 -8.985362 -8.485624 -4.669462 31.367740
2002-09-23 -9.558560 -8.781216 -4.499815 30.518439
2002-09-24 -9.902058 -9.340490 -4.386639 30.105593
2002-09-25 -10.216020 -9.480682 -3.933802 29.758560
2002-09-26 -11.856774 -10.671012 -3.216025 29.369368

[1000 rows x 4 columns]

EXCEL格式

写入:

1
In [145]: df.to_excel('foo.xlsx', sheet_name='Sheet1')

读取:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
In [146]: pd.read_excel('foo.xlsx', 'Sheet1', index_col=None, na_values=['NA'])
Out[146]:
A B C D
2000-01-01 0.266457 -0.399641 -0.219582 1.186860
2000-01-02 -1.170732 -0.345873 1.653061 -0.282953
2000-01-03 -1.734933 0.530468 2.060811 -0.515536
2000-01-04 -1.555121 1.452620 0.239859 -1.156896
2000-01-05 0.578117 0.511371 0.103552 -2.428202
2000-01-06 0.478344 0.449933 -0.741620 -1.962409
2000-01-07 1.235339 -0.091757 -1.543861 -1.084753
... ... ... ... ...
2002-09-20 -10.628548 -9.153563 -7.883146 28.313940
2002-09-21 -10.390377 -8.727491 -6.399645 30.914107
2002-09-22 -8.985362 -8.485624 -4.669462 31.367740
2002-09-23 -9.558560 -8.781216 -4.499815 30.518439
2002-09-24 -9.902058 -9.340490 -4.386639 30.105593
2002-09-25 -10.216020 -9.480682 -3.933802 29.758560
2002-09-26 -11.856774 -10.671012 -3.216025 29.369368

[1000 rows x 4 columns]

陷阱

如果在操作是报错:

1
2
3
4
5
>>> if pd.Series([False, True, False]):
print("I was true")
Traceback
...
ValueError: The truth value of an array is ambiguous. Use a.empty, a.any() or a.all().

请查看 Comparisons 或者 Gotchas 相关信息。